Resources and References
Articles and Books
- ACGME (2007). Competencies & Balint Training: Competencies Taught by Balint Work. This article from the American Balint Society website,lists the competencies as specified by the ACGME which are taught by Balint training. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education is responsible for the accreditation of postgraduate medical training programs within the U.S.A.
- Addison, R. (1994). Balint Leadership and Hermeneutic Research, Proceedings of the International Balint Federation Congress, Charlston Carolina.
- Addison, R., Miller, W., and WIlliamson, P. (1994). Outline for Closing Plenary, Proceedings of the International Balint Federation Congress, Charlston Carolina.
- Balint, Enid (1969) The Possibilities of Patient-Centred Medicine. Royal College of General Practitioners, 17:269. Historically fascinating and still relevant today, this article explores the tensions in the GP’s varying roles as explored in early Balint seminars.
- Balint, E., (1980). The Doctor Patient-Relationship in the 1980’s. Talk delivered in South Africa. Extracts relating to Balint group leadership
- Balint, E., (1985). The history of training and research in Balint-groups. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy,1(2), 1-9
- Benoit, Reverzy and Suied (2002). Three testimonies about meeting Michael Balint and his ideals. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, Vol. 62, No. 4. These short memoirs include an account of a paediatricianís experience of being a Balint group member “a training that no reading and no teaching could replace.”
- Benson, J. and Magraith, K. (2005). “Compassion fatigue and burnout: the role of Balint groups”. Australian Family Physician. 34-6, 497-498. Describes how Balint groups can help prevent compassion fatigue and burnout.
- Brock, C., Johnson, A., (1999). Balint Group Observations: The White Knight and Other Heroic Physician Roles. Family Medicine, 31(6):404-8.
- Cataldo, K., Peeden, K., Geesey, M. and Dickerson, L. (2005). Association Between Balint Training and Physician Empathy and Work Satisfaction. Family Medicine 37(5):328-31.
- Council of the British Balint Society, (1994). ‘Essential’ and ‘Desirable’ Characteristics of a Balint Group, Proceedings of the International Balint Federation Congress, Charlston Carolina.
- Courtenay, M., (1984). The place of Balint work in medicine – looking back – looking forward, Journal of the Balint Society, 12, 8-11.
- Courtenay, M., (1977). The leaders, the doctors, and their patients. Journal of the Balint Society.
- De Lambert, Louise (2010). Postscript to Balint Work Increases the Ability to Think One’s Own Thoughts. Group analysis, 43:86.
- Devens, M. and Dornfest, F. (2007) Balint co-leadership: Suggested checklist for general preparation of new coleaders prior to leading a group together at Intensives (unpublished).
- Dornfest, Frank. How-To Manual. This manual includes a description of Balint groups for future participants, an overview of groups for practicing GPs, trainees, or students, a description of the Balint group leader roles and functions, ground rules for a Balint group, and a comparison of Balint groups with personal and professional development groups. Included is a 44-reference bibliography.
- Dufey, J. (1994). A New World Address, Proceedings of the International Balint Federation Congress, Charlston Carolina.
- Ghetti, C., Chang, J., Gossman, G. (2009). Burnout, Psychological Skills, and Empathy: Balint Training in Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents. Journal of Graduate Medical Education
- Gill, C., (1985). Tensions in General Practice, Journal of the Balint Society, 13, 10-16.
- Haslam, Nick, (2007). Humanising medical practice: the role of empathy. Medical Journal of Australia. 187: 381-2. An excellent overview and brief literature review of the importance of empathy in medical practice.
- Jablonski, Henry (2003). Defining Balint Work – Is there a heartland? and which are the neighbouring countries?. In Salinsky, J. and Otten, H. ( eds. ) (2003). The doctor, the patient and their well-being ? world wide. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Balint Congress Berlin 2003. The International Balint Federation.
- Johnson, A., Nease, D., Jr, Milberg, L. Addison, R., (2004). Essential Characteristics of Effective Balint Group Leadership. Family Medicine,36(4):253-9.
- Johnson, A., Brock, C., Hamadeh, G., and Stock, R, (2001). The Current Status of Balint Groups in US Family Practice Residencies: A 10-year Follow-up Study, 1990-2000. Family Medicine, 33(9):672-7.
- Johnson, A. (2001). The Balint Movement in America. Family Medicine, 33(3), 174-7.
- Katz-Bearnot, Sherry (2007). The Medical Education of Generation RX. The Future of Psychoanalytic Education Conference, New York, 2007. About the author’s work educating medical students and young doctors about patients and their relationships with their patients, using psychoanalytic ideas and with a nod to Michael Balint.
- Kjeldmand, Dorte. (2006). The Doctor, the Task and the Group: Balint Groups as a Means of Developing New Understanding in the Physician-Patient Relationship. A PhD thesis on Balint groups in Sweden.
- Kjeldmand, D. et al (2004). Balint training makes GPs thrive better in their job. Patient Education and Counselling, 55:230-235. (Swedish research on Balint groups demonstrating some of their benefits).
- Klee, Thomas (2008) The function of Balint’s levels of mind in Balint groups. Journal of the Balint Society.
- Lachowsky, M. (1994). The Effect of Balint Work on Our Patients, Proceedings of the International Balint Federation Congress, Charlston Carolina.
- Leggett, Andrew (2009). Establishing a Balint group for mental health workers: the Inala community mental health experience. Proceedings of the 16th International Balint Congress, Polana Brasov, Romania.
- Levenstein, S. (1994). Balint Group Leadership, Proceedings of the International Balint Federation Congress, Charlston Carolina.
- Lichtenstein, Albert and Lustig, Marion (2006). Integrating intuition and reasoning: how Balint groups can help medical decision making. Australian Family Physician. 35(12), 987-989. Includes case vignettes.
- Lustig, M. (2004). Generating a reflective space for GPs; working with Balint groups. Australasian Journal of Psychotherapy, 23:66-85. Includes case vignettes.
- Lustig, M. (2006). Balint groups: an Australian perspective. Australian Family Physician Vol. 35 (8): 639-652 . Introductory article including case vignettes. (Some of the information on this website first appeared in this article).
- Lustig, M. (2007). From psychoanalytic psychotherapy to Balint groups- what do leaders need to know? Australasian Journal of Psychotherapy, 26(1), 40-46. Aimed at psychotherapists interested in leading Balint groups.
- Lustig, Marion (2008). Humanising medical practice: the role of empathy. 188 (4): 263-264. This letter is a reply to Haslam, Nick (2007) and highlights the role of Balint groups in developing empathy.
- Lustig, Marion (2016) Balint Groups: An Australasian perspective for psychiatrists
Scan down and read pages 2-5
Australasian Psychiatry 2016, Vol 24(1) 30–33
- Milberg, Laurel. Some Random Thoughts about Balint Group Pitfalls, Pratfalls, and Pot Holes . This article raises common and deadly problems that can derail Balint Groups, either in how they are organized or how they are run.
- Milberg, Laurel (2002). Balint Groups From the Perspective of a Teacher. Presented as keynote address at Balint Weekend Meeting at Exeter College, Oxford, U.K. An experienced American Balint group leader presents feedback from GP trainees on their Balint group experiences during training
- Donald Nease (2007). Mutiny on the Balint? A reflection on the relevance of Balint, 50 years hence. Family Medicine 39(7):510-11. This article, written in response to an article by Smith and Anandaraja (see below) is a thoughtful overview of Balint work. In particular, Nease defines what is unique about Balint groups and considers issues of orthodoxy, boundaries, flexibility and group safety.
- Norell, J. (1991). The International Balint Federation: past, present and future. Family Practice. 8 (4): 378-381. Historical article.
- O’Neill S, Foster K, Gilbert-Obrart A (2015): The Balint group experience for medical students a pilot project, Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Online Journal
- Orman, Jan (2005). Balint Groups – A Participant’s Experience at the RACGP Conference in Darwin 2005.
- Pinder R, McKee A, Sackin P, Salinsky J, Samuel O, Suckling H. ‘Occasional Paper 87 – Talking about my patient: the Balint approach in education’ RACGP publication – A new publication exploring the influence of Balint groups in general practice, has been published by the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP). This publication is the report of a research project into Balint group work in vocational training in the London area. The report explores what happens when a Balint group takes place in vocational training, how it is variously read and understood by practitioners and with what likely benefits and consequences. The case studies illustrate both the potential of the small group and also of the method used to investigate the subject.
- Platt, F. (1994). Findings from Miles Workshops on Physician-Patient Communication, Proceedings of the International Balint Federation Congress, Charlston Carolina.
- Royal College of General Practitioners (2007). Curriculum Statement 2: The general practice consultation. This document outlines the U.K. general practice training curriculum with respect to the consultation. It recommends Balint groups for doctors in training and explains why.
- Salinsky, J. (2002). The Balint movement worldwide: present state and future outlook: a brief history of Balint around the world. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis 62:4. Historical article.
- Salinsky (2003, revised 2005). Balint Groups and the Balint Method An excellent overview, including history, Balint groups for GPs and GP trainees, a description of how a trainee group operates, Balint in the UK, benefits of Balint groups, research.
- Salinsky (2009). ‘Writing prescriptions is easy’ Franz Kafka and his country doctor. Presented at the International Balint Federation Congress, Rumania. A delightful reflection about a Kafka short story about a night call from hell and what a Balint group might have made of the case.
- Samuel, O.W. (1989). How doctors learn in a Balint group. Fam. Pract. 6, 108-113. A lucid introduction.
- Sanders, D. (1994). The Use of Individualized Balint Training in One-On-One Teaching, Proceedings of the International Balint Federation Congress, Charlston Carolina.
- Schoenberg, P. and Suckling, H. (2004). A Balint group for medical students at Royal Free and UCH School of Medicine. Journal of the Balint Society, 32:20-23.
- Smith, Marcia and Anandaraja, Gowri (2007). Mutiny on the Balint: balancing resident developmental needs with the Balint process. Family Medicine 39:7, 495-7. This article describes a Balint group in an American family medicine training program in which the residents initially expressed strong dissatisfaction with the group. Some modifications were made to allow the group to address professional development topics and the group spontaneously returned to a process more consistent with traditional Balint.
- Storas, B. (1994). Psychiatric Group Supervision in Family Practice and Concomitant Focus Group Evaluation, Proceedings of the International Balint Federation Congress, Charlston Carolina.
- Stone, Louise. (2014) Blame, Shame and Hopelessness: Medically Unexplained Symptoms and the “Heartsink” Experience , Australian Family Physician Vol. 43 No. 4 April 2014 Pp 191-195
- Suckling, H. (2005). What do Medical Students discuss in Balint Groups?, Journal of the Romanian Balint Society. Themes of the cases discussed in Balint Groups for medical students.
- Suckling, H. (2006). Balint in a nutshell (unpublished). A handout for medical students which is an excellent introduction for anyone.
- Suckling, H and Shoenberg, P (2005). What effect does a Balint group have on medical students? The International Balint Federation and The Swedish Association of Medical Psychology. Proceedings of the 14th International Balint Congress Stockholm 2005. 55-60.
- Turner, A. and Malm, R. (2004). A preliminary investigation of Balint and Non-Balint behavioural medicine training. Family Medicine, 36(2): 114-7 (research on Balint groups in GP training).
- Rüth, U. (2009). Classic Balint Group Work and the Thinking of W.R. Bion: How Balint Work Increases the Ability to Think One’s Own Thoughts: Group Analysis 2009; 42; 380
- Wilson, H. and Gilbert-Obrart. A. (2021) Into the darkness: medical student essays on first experiences of the dying patient
- Torppa, M. and Makkonen, E. and Martenson, C. and Pitka la, K. A qualitative analysis of student Balint groups in medical education: Contexts and triggers of case presentations and discussion themes Patient Education and Counseling 72 (2008) 5–11
- Balint, E., Courtenary, M., Elder, A., Hull, S. and Julian, P. The Doctor, the patient and the group: Balint revisited. Tavistock/ Routledge, London/New York, 1993. A richly rewarding book about general practice and the nature of the work in Balint groups.
- Balint, E. Before I was I. Ed. Juliet Mitchell and Michael Parsons. Free Association Books, London, 1993. Contains three excellent chapters about her work with GPs.
- Balint, M. Balint Training: The Doctor, his patient, and the illness. Pitman, London, 1957; 2nd edition Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1964, reprinted 1986. Essential reading for Balint enthusiasts. Describes the Balints¹ pioneering work with groups of GPs in London. Excerpts by Frank Dornfest from Appendix 1 about training.
- Elder, A. and Samuel, O., While I’m here, doctor: a study of the doctor-patient relationship (Tavistock, London, 1987). Description of work done in a Balint group.
- Salinsky, J. and Sackin, P., What are you feeling, doctor? Identifying and avoiding defensive patterns in the consultation (Radcliffe Medical Press Ltd., Oxon., 2000). This book is a fascinating account of a group of experienced GPs who decided to meet as a Balint group over a period of time and focus in their exploration of the doctor-patient relationships presented at evidence that the doctor was using defences to protect against engaging emotionally with the patient.
- Sanders, K. Mind From Brain:- Emotional Problems in Primary Care – A Psychoanalytic View. Westcombe, London , 2006
- Shoenberg, P. and Yakeley, Jessica., Learning About Emotions in Illness – Integrating Psychotherapeutic Teaching into Medical Education. Routledge, March 2014
- Wilson, H, and Cunningham, W., Being a Doctor: Understanding Medical Practice. Otago University Press; Dunedin, 2013. In the tradition of Ian McWhinney and Eric Cassell, this book is a modern take on the challenges of medical practice. Based on numerous clinical stories, there are many references to the benefits of Balint work, with a useful Appendix on the method. There are chapters on the doctor-patient relationship, reflective practice, and self-care. The book will be useful for all health professionals as well as for leaders of Balint groups
- Mayes, L., “Beyond the Stethoscope: Doctors’ stories of reclaiming hope, heart & healing in medicine” Angus and Robertson Nov 2017. Includes quite a number of stories of doctors who have had strong and meaningful associations with the Balint work.
- Otten H., “The Theory and Practice of Balint Group Work: Analyzing Professional Relationships”
Presents a practical guide to Balint groups and their relevance to clinicians in the modern world of internet diagnoses, distant patients and teams of specialists. (It is) an essential guide for psychoanalysts, psychoanalytic psychotherapists, counsellors and medical practitioners and theorists coming to group work for the first time or utilising Balint’s ideas in their day to day practice. Routledge 2018
Introduction to Balint Work – Power Point Presentation (PPT)
Continuing Professional Development for Doctors
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- American Balint Society. This website is a goldmine of information with many links to articles. For people interested in starting or running groups, it includes an excellent compilation by Frank Dornfest entitled “Balint Training: a ‘how to’ manual of development”
- Balint Society (U.K.). This website also includes lots of information and articles
- The International Balint Federation
Journal of the UK Balint Society
The Journal of the UK Balint Society is published annually in September and distributed free to members. The current Journal can be obtained from the Secretary, by non-members, at the price of £5 per copy. There is a digital archive of all past issues of the Journal and Guidance for Contributors.